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North Dakota

Last updated: September 4, 2011

North Dakota Criminal Code Title 12.1 §17-07(5)

12.1-17-07. Harassment.

  1. A person is guilty of an offense if, with intent to frighten or harass another, the person:
    1. Communicates in writing or by telephone a threat to inflict injury on any person, to any person's reputation, or to any property;
    2. Makes a telephone call anonymously or in offensively coarse language;
    3. Makes repeated telephone calls, whether or not a conversation ensues, with no purpose of legitimate communication; or
    4. Communicates a falsehood in writing or by telephone and causes mental anguish.
  2. The offense is a class A misdemeanor if it is under subdivision a of subsection 1 or subsection 4. Otherwise it is a class B misdemeanor.
  3. Any offense defined herein and committed by use of a telephone may be deemed to have been committed at either the place at which the telephone call or calls were made or at the place where the telephone call or calls were received.
  4. A person who telephones a 911 emergency line with the intent to annoy or harass another person or who makes a false 911 report is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
    1. Intent to annoy or harass is established by proof of one or more calls with no legitimate 911 purpose.
    2. Upon conviction of a violation of this subsection, a person is also liable for all costs incurred by any unnecessary emergency response.
  5. Any offense defined herein is deemed communicated in writing if it is transmitted electronically, by electronic mail, facsimile, or other similar means.

12.1-17-07.1. Stalking.

  1. As used in this section:
    1. "Course of conduct" means a pattern of conduct consisting of two or more acts evidencing a continuity of purpose. The term does not include constitutionally protected activity.
    2. "Immediate family" means a spouse, parent, child, or sibling. The term also includes any other individual who regularly resides in the household or who within the prior six months regularly resided in the household.
    3. "Stalk" means to engage in an intentional course of conduct directed at a specific person which frightens, intimidates, or harasses that person, and that serves no legitimate purpose. The course of conduct may be directed toward that person or a member of that person's immediate family and must cause a reasonable person to experience fear, intimidation, or harassment.
  2. No person may intentionally stalk another person.
  3. In any prosecution under this section, it is not a defense that the actor was not given actual notice that the person did not want the actor to contact or follow the person; nor is it a defense that the actor did not intend to frighten, intimidate, or harass the person. An attempt to contact or follow a person after being given actual notice that the person does not want to be contacted or followed is prima facie evidence that the actor intends to stalk that person.
  4. In any prosecution under this section, it is a defense that a private investigator licensed under chapter 43-30 or a peace officer licensed under chapter 12-63 was acting within the scope of employment.
  5. If a person claims to have been engaged in a constitutionally protected activity, the court shall determine the validity of the claim as a matter of law and, if found valid, shall exclude evidence of the activity.
  6. 6.
    1. A person who violates this section is guilty of a class C felony if:
      (1) The person previously has been convicted of violating section 12.1-17-01, 12.1-17-01.1, 12.1-17-02, 12.1-17-04, 12.1-17-05, or 12.1-17-07 or a similar offense in another state, involving the victim of the stalking;
      (2) The stalking violates a court order issued under chapter 14-07.1 protecting the victim of the stalking, if the person had notice of the court order; or
      (3) The person previously has been convicted of violating this section.
    2. If subdivision a does not apply, a person who violates this section is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.